Manager Adam Nawałka's men were drawn into a cross-continental Group H and will open their campaign against Senegal in Moscow on June 19.
Poland take on Colombia in Kazan on June 24 and play Japan in Volgograd four days later.
Football fans in Poland breathed a sigh of relief after it turned out that the national team will not be pitted against some of its nightmare-scenario opponents, but pundits cautioned against excessive optimism, giving all the teams in Group H about an equal chance of progressing further in the tournament.
Poland are ranked No. 7 by world football's governing body FIFA.
Poland's World Cup group-stage fixtures
June 19: Senegal in Moscow
June 24: Colombia in Kazan
June 28: Japan in Volgograd
Full 2018 World Cup draw
Group A: Russia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Uruguay
Group B: Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Iran
Group C: France, Australia, Peru, Denmark
Group D: Argentina, Iceland, Croatia, Nigeria
Group E: Brazil, Switzerland, Costa Rica, Serbia
Group F: Germany, Mexico, Sweden, South Korea
Group G: Belgium, Panama, Tunisia, England
Group H: Poland, Senegal, Colombia, Japan
Poland’s last World Cup appearance was in Germany in 2006, when they did not get past the group stage.
Poland finished third in the 1974 World Cup in West Germany and were also third in Spain in 1982 -- their two top achievements.
Source: TVP Sport